Mb0038 Solved Assignment 2012 Calendar
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BY :SIR . MAHAVEER SINGH BHARDWAJ
MB0038: Management Process and Organization Behavior
1.What do you mean by Span of Control? Differentiate between narrow span of control and wide span of control. Describe the factors that influence the span of control.
Answer:What Is Span Of Control?Span of control :-It is simply the number of staff that report to a manager. Some companies also have an ideal span of control, which is the number of reports they feel a manager can effectively manage. In this case, if a manager has fewer reports than the ideal, they may feel he or she is not being effectively used, while handling more they may feel that the manager is over-stretched and the reports will not receive enough direction.
Differentiate between narrow span of control and wide span of control. Optimum span of control ranges between 3 and 9 depending on the complexity of the work supervised and the need for tight control. Narrow would therefore be 3-5, for example an infantry fire team (3). Wide would be 7-9 as in some business teams. With physical work as opposed to abstract work, such as shop floor work in a factory, span can sometimes be increased to as much as 30 without a productivity loss because outputs are predetermined .Optimum span of control ranges between 3 and 9 depending on the complexity of the work supervised and the need for tight control. Narrow would therefore be 3-5, for example an infantry fire team (3). Wide would be 7-9 as in some business teams. With physical work as opposed to abstract work, such as shop floor work in a factory, span can sometimes be increased to as much as 30 without a productivity loss because outputs are predetermined .Optimum span of control ranges between 3 and 9 depending on the complexity of the work supervised and the need for tight control. Narrow would therefore be 3-5, for example an infantry fire team (3). Wide would be 7-9 as in some business teams. With physical work as opposed to abstract work, such as shop floor work in a factory, span can sometimes be increased to as much as 30 without a productivity loss because outputs are predetermined .Optimum span of control ranges between 3 and 9 depending on the
Complexity of the work supervised and the need for tight control. Narrow would therefore be 3-5, for example an infantry fire team (3). Wide would be 7-9 as in some business teams. With physical work as opposed to abstract work, such as shop floor work in a factory, span can sometimes be increased to as much as 30 without a productivity loss because outputs are predetermined .Optimum span of control ranges between 3 and 9 depending on the complexity of the work supervised and the need for tight control. Narrow would therefore be 3-5, for example an infantry fire team (3). Wide would be 7-9 as in some business teams. With physical work as opposed to abstract work, such as shop floor work in a factory, span can sometimes be increased to as much as 30 without a productivity loss because outputs are predetermined .Narrow Span Of Control determine as maximum coordination with subordinates. Or we can say a great deal of time spent with subordinates.
Factors affecting span of control
These are the factors affecting span of control:
1. Geographical dispersion, if the branches of a business are widely dispersed, then the manager will find it difficult to supervise each of them, as such the span of control will be smaller.
2. Capability of workers, if workers are highly capable, need little supervision, and can be left on their own, e.g.: Theory 2Y type of people, they need not be supervised much as they are motivated and take initiative to work; as such the span of control will be wider.
3. Capability of boss, an experienced boss with good understanding of the tasks, good knowledge of the workers and good relationships with the workers, will be able to supervise more workers
4. Value-add of the boss, a boss that is adding value by training and developing new skills in the workers will need a narrow span of control than one who is focused only on performance management (this is the reverse of the capability of workers point above)
5. Similarity of task, if the tasks that the subordinates are performing are similar, then the span of control can be wider, as the manager can supervise them all at the same time.
6. Volume of other tasks, if the boss has other responsibilities, such as membership of committees, involvement in other projects, liaising
7. with stakeholders, the number of direct reports will need to be smaller
8. Required administrative tasks, if the boss is required to have regular face to face meetings, complete appraisal and development plans, discuss remuneration benefits, write job descriptions and employment contracts, explain employment policy changes and other administrative tasks then the span of control is reduced
2. Define the term controlling. What are the pre-requisites of effective control?
Define the term controlling.
What is controlling? Controllers design and accompany the management process of defining goals, planning and controlling and thus have a joint responsibility to reach the objectives.
Controller's mission This means:
· Controllers ensure the transparency of business results, finance, processes and strategy and thus contribute to higher economic effectiveness.
· Controllers co-ordinate secondary goals and the related plans in a holistic way and organize a reporting-system which is future-oriented and covers the enterprise as a whole.
· Controllers moderate and design the controlling process of defining goals, planning and management control so that every decision maker can act in accordance with agreed objectives.
· Controllers provide managers with all necessary company management data and information
· Controllers develop and maintain controlling systems.
What are the pre-requisites of effective control?
Tailoring controls to plans and positions: Control techniques should reflect the plans they follow, and reflect the place in the organization where responsibility for action lies. This enables managers to take action when controls differ from their plans.
Tailoring controls to individual managers: When controls are tailored to individual managers, individual managers carry out their functions of control more effectively. The system of control shouldn't be too ambiguous to people who will utilize it.
Making sure the control point up expectations at critical points: Controls that point out exceptions help managers detect areas that require attention. Its is best to look for exceptions at critical points, and the exception principle should be accompanied by principle of critical point control.
Seeking objectivity of controls: An objective, accuracy, and suitable standards are required for effective control technique.
Ensuring flexibility of controls: Controls should remain in place despite unexpected plans, unforeseen circumstances, or outright failures.
Fitting the control system to the organizational culture: Systems that fit within the organizational culture are deemed to do best.
Achieving economy of controls: Control techniques are most effective when they achieve maximum output at minimum cost.
Establishing controls that lead to corrective action: Controls are useful only if they can correct plans through better planning, organization, staffing and leadership.
Define the term ‘personality’.
As understanding personality is crucial for knowing behavior of an individual in an organization, we will discuss in this
Section of the unit the interface between personality and organization.
Personality refers to some qualities, characteristics skills and competencies of individuals along with certain other
Traits like grooming and attitude. Personality means very specific patterns. of behavior of an individual in a defined
Situation. But there are certain uniform characteristics which always emerge in A person on the basis of which certain inferences can be drawn.
Describe Cattell’s Personality Factor Model.
According to trait theory, human personality is composed of a number of broad traits or dispositions. Early theories attempted to describe every possible trait. For example, psychologist Gordon All port identified more than 4,000 words in the English language that could be used to describe personality traits. Later, Raymond Cattell analyzed this list and whittled it down to 171 characteristics, mostly by eliminated terms that were redundant or uncommon. He was then able to use a statistical technique known as factor analysis to identify traits that are related to one another. By doing this, he was able to reduce his list to 16 key personality factors.
According to Cattell, there is a continuum of personality traits. In other words, each person contains all of these 16 traits to a certain degree, but they might be high in some traits and low in others. The following personality trait list describes some of the descriptive terms used for each of the 16 personality dimensions described by Cattell.
1. Abstractedness: Imaginative versus practical
2. Apprehension: Worried versus confident
3. Dominance: Forceful versus submissive
4. Emotional Stability: Calm versus high strung
5. Liveliness: Spontaneous versus restrained
6. Openness to Change: Flexible versus attached to the familiar
7. Perfectionism: Controlled versus undisciplined
8. Privateness: Discreet versus open
9. Reasoning: Abstract versus concrete
10. Rule Consciousness: Conforming versus non-conforming
11. Self-Reliance: Self-sufficient versus depende
12. Sensitivity: Tender-hearted versus tough-minded.
13. Social Boldness: Uninhibited versus shy
14. Tension: Impatient versus relaxed
15. Vigilance: Suspicious versus trusting
16. Warmth: Outgoing versus reserved
Cattell also developed an assessment based on these 16 personality factors. The test is known as the 16 PF Personality Questionnaire and is still frequently used
Alderfer (1972) classifies needs into three categories into hierarchical order. They are:
The existence category
A comparison of Maslow, Alderfer and HertzbergMcClelland’s Theory of Needs
McClelland’s (1961) theory focuses on three needs: achievement, power, and affiliation.
Cognitive Evaluation Theory
This theory proposes (Deci & Ryan, 1985) that when extrinsic rewards are used by organizations as payoffs for superior performance, the intrinsic rewards, which are derived from individuals doing what they like, are reduced.
locke and Latham (1990) proposed that challenging goals produce a higher level of output than do the generalized goals. More difficult the goal, the higher the level of performance will be. People will do better when they get
Reinforcement theory (Komaki et. al., 1991) argues that reinforcement conditions human behavior. According to this theory, behavior is a function of its consequences. Behavior is environmentally caused. It can be modified (reinforced) by providing (controlling) consequences. Reinforced behavior tends to be repeated.
What are the factors that affect group behaviour?
Factors Affecting Groups and Teams
Many factors can affect how well groups and teams perform. Among these are the cohesiveness of the group, the degree to which individual members conform to group standards, the roles and norms the group agrees to adopt and function by, the level and intensity of competition and conflict, and - finally – the style and competence of group leadership.
Cohesiveness may by defined as “sticking together.” Groups or teams are cohesive when their participants identify with their membership. Identification means that the participants feel proud to be members, inform outsiders that they are members, and perceive the purposes and goals that the group or team stands for as their own.
conformity means “going along.” Group conformity is realized when participants abandon a particular position contrary to other group or team members in favor of a majority view. This abandonment, called conforming, happens for many reasons including: pressure to compromise, logical or emotional persuasion, coercion, time constraints, personal frustration, or perceiving the futility of continued argument.
Define the term ‘leadership’. Write a brief note on “Contingency Theories of Leadership”?
1. The individuals who are the leaders in an organization, regarded collectively.
The activity of leading a group of people or an organization or the ability to do this.
1. establishing a clear vision,
2. sharing that vision with others so that they will follow willingly,
3. providing the information, knowledge and methods to realize that vision, and
4. Coordinating and balancing the conflicting interests of all members and stakeholders.
A leader steps up in times of crisis, and is able to think and act creatively in difficult situations. Unlike management, leadership cannot be taught, although it may be learned and enhanced through coaching or mentoring. Someone with great leadership skills today is Bill Gates who, despite early failures, with continued passion and innovation has driven Microsoft and the software industry to success.
END OF PROJECT
MB0039 –Business Communication
1 As a speaker you are addressing a group of people. Explain the elements involved in this communication.
· Sender or encoder – This is the person who transmits a message. For example, a manager writing a letter to a consultant after a meeting or a sales manager making a presentation to the sales team. Here the manager is the sender
· Receiver or decoder – The person who notices and decodes, or attaches some meaning to a message. Decoding may not always be accurate and a wrong meaning may be attached to a message. For example, a friendly joke might be taken as an offence, or feedback given to a subordinate by a superior might be taken in
2. What is the importance of Kinesics and Proxemics in communication? Explain with examples.
Contact/low contact nonverbal communication
Proxemics can be one criteria for the classification of nonverbal communication: We talk about contact and low-contact communication. Proximity is communicated, for instance, through the use of space, distance, touching, and body position. The use of space, the physical distance between people, and the options for touch are closely related and culture specific. Hall distinguishes four types of informal distances: public, social-consultative, personal and intimate distance. Personal distance is common in communication between friends. Social-consultative distance is used in professional and unofficial social occasions. People from different cultural backgrounds can for example value personal space differently.
Gestures, facial expressions, body language, eye contact (kinesics)
Certain nonverbal means of communication indicate immediacy, expressiveness, warmth and willingness to contact. In addition to touching and physical proximity, such signals are, for instance, eye contact, smiling, and body position.
Eye contact is a powerful means of nonverbal communication. Its use is culturally regulated but in general people are not aware of the rules or their own eye contact behaviour. Eye contact can be a source of interpretations and attributions. Based on eye contact, someone can be perceived as aggressive, disrespectful, or flirtatious, depending on the culture.
3. How does internal business communication affect the organization? Discuss the role of each stakeholder in this.
Internal Communications Problems
Many companies face what, at first, appear to be a daunting, even insurmountable task - communicating effectively with employees.
A famous quote from the 1967 movie Cool Hand Luke pretty much sums it up: "What we've got here is (a) failure to communicate."
Internal Communication Assumptions
1. If I know it, then everyone must know it.
"Perhaps the most common communications problem is managements' (leaders' and managers') assumption that because they are aware of some piece of information, than everyone else is, too," states McNamara. "Usually staff aren't aware unless management makes a deliberate attempt to carefully convey information."
2. We hate bureaucracy -- we're "lean and mean."
Some companies don't want to be burdened with what they perceive as bureaucratic hassles such as written policies and procedures. Yet, as organizations grow, they need established communications protocols in place in order to remain healthy.
3. I told everyone, or some people, or...?
Companies assume that communication just happens and have no mechanism in place to know who received a given message, even when it was intended for everyone.
4. Did you hear what I meant for you to hear?
Communication is a two-way street. Just because a message was sent does not mean that employees interpreted it in the way management intended.
5. Our problems are too big to have to listen to each other!
The "tyranny of the urgent" means that insufficient time is taken to ensure everyone understands the intention of the message.
6. So what's to talk about?
Issues arise when it is assumed that communication is only necessary if there are problems to be solved.
7. There's data and there's information.
Sharing large amounts of data does not equate to sharing useful information.
8. If I need your opinion, I'll tell it to you.
Problems can occur when employees aren't kept in the loop.
4.Imagine a new product from food industry. Write a persuasive letter to customers, persuading them to buy your company’s product.
Date: September 9, 2014
Mr. Jerry Stone,
Dear Mr. Stone,
Here is an Offer too Good to Refuse! Before you roll your eyes thinking, 'Oh God! Not another one!', and chuck this letter into a bin, just read a few of the lines below.
Imagine the mellow sun and the grainy sand. Imagine the soft rolling of the waves of the sea. Those beautiful sunsets in the evening. Watching all of this in the lap of luxury, sipping your choicest drink. Imagine a week's getaway from all the traffic noise that wakes you up, that crazy drive to work, the yelling and screaming at workplace and at home. Imagine a place where you can sleep when you want, wake up when you want, do what you want, and live the way YOU like!
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5.You are going to face a job interview for the post of Manager-operations. Which aspects you will keep in mind while facing the interview?
Find out what type of interview you can expect. The recruiter setting up your job interview can probably give you an idea ahead of time. If you have the opportunity, ask how long the interview will be and who will be on the panel? You can better tailor your answers when you understand the interview conditions.
6. Write short notes on: a) SQ3R technique of reading b) Circulars
SQ3R stands for the initial letters of the five steps in studying a text-
Let us briefly go through these steps in the given order.
1. Survey: Survey refers to a quick glance through the title page, preface and chapter headings of a text. By surveying, you will be able to gauge the main ideas of the text. Besides, the author’s name, date, place of publication and title page can give you an idea of the general subject area. The table of contents, preface or foreword in a book would give you an idea of the themes and how they are organized. A survey of the index or bibliography tells you immediately whether the book contains what you need.
Let us take an example.
Choose the appropriate reference by a quick survey:
Here is a bibliography (list of books) on POLIMERIZATION. Decide which of the publications in the list are likely to give you: (encircle the appropriate letter).
A brief introduction to the subject: a b c d e f
Current developments in the field a b c d e f
Historical study of the subject a b c d e f
Various opinions by experts on the subject a b c d e f
2. Question: The second step in the SQ3R technique of reading is
“question.” A survey of the text will surely raise a few questions in your
mind regarding the text. Some of the questions could be-• Is the book useful or relevant to my study ?
• Does it provide some guidelines/information on the subject at hand ?
However, as you go through the individual chapters, you might have specific
questions regarding the topic. This will surely lead to gaining some insights
into the text, topic and the author's comments. You will be surprised to see
how your questions are answered in the process of reading and
understanding the text. Therefore, don't treat reading as an automatic
process. It has to be conscious and deliberate,.with a definite purpose,
where you interact with the topic and the author.
3. Reading: After surveying and questioning, you begin the actual reading.
You need to develop a critical approach to reading anything for that matter.
Read the text over and over again, each time with a different question and
a different purpose in mind. "I read it once and understand everything" kind
of attitude is nothing but a myth. Hence, while reading for the first time, you
should just focus on the main points/ideas and supporting details.
4. Recall: The fourth stage in reading comprehension is recalling. Reading
is not an isolated activity. Every reading exercise increases your
background knowledge. You should be able to connect the information
gained with the already existing background knowledge. Recalling
whatever you have read will enable you to connect and relate the content
with the previous and future learning of the subject. This leads us to the
next stage in reading i.e., review.
5. Review: Reviewing is nothing but checking whether we have followed
the earlier stages promptly and efficiently. Have we surveyed the book,
article, or magazine properly? Have we asked the
END OF PROJECT
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d) Dreams12 __________is associated with participative management background.a) Lewinb) Likertc) Ericd) Leavitt
The ability to control another‟s behavior because the individual wants to
identify with the power source is:(a) Referent power(b) Expert power(c) Influence(d) Reward power
14 An informal group that attempts to influence people outside the group bypooling the resources and power of its members is known as(a) A coalition(b) An upward appeal(c) An ingratiation group(d) An impression management group
15 Who conducted the learning experiment on dogs-
teach dogs to salivate
in response to the ringing of bell”
a) Skinnerb) Pavlovc) Bandored) Sheldon
16 A neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning,persuasion, and suggestions for alternatives is called a/an :a. Advisorb. Mediatorc. Negotiatord. Conciliator
occurs when each party gives up something of value to the other. Asa result of no one getting its full desires, the antecedent conditions for futureconflicts are established Avoidinga. Compromisingb. Collaboratingc. Accommodating