Essayouti Tarikh



Malian Manuscripts in Timbuktu: A Report

It has been my dream to visit the historical city of Timbuktu (Timbuctu, Tombouctou) on the edge of the Saharan Desert in Mali. D.W. Berky, leader of the first American expedition, arrived in 1912 for a one-year visit. I arrived 96 years later without the hassle of a camel caravan, rather I had a short delay at the south side of the Niger River while we summoned the ferry with a cell phone. Below is a brief report of my findings.

Libraries

Recently, family manuscripts stashed in attics or forgotten in trunks have been located, processed, and shared with scholars. These documents underscore the importance of the towns of Timbuktu, Segou, and Djenne as centers of learning dating to the 14th century at a time when Europe was languishing in disease and ignorance.

Institut Ahmed Baba

Djibril Doucoure
Chief, Division of Conservation & Preservation

Timbuktu has the largest and most organized collection of Malian manuscripts. The 15th century intelligentsia, judges, doctors, imams, and professors, required a reference collection for practicing their profession. Ahmed Baba, who wrote 56 books, was an ancestor of the prominent Aqit family who promoted literacy.

Today, the director at the Institut Ahmed Baba, collaborates with many organizations to catalog, preserve, conserve, digitize, and promote the manuscripts of local families. The South African government is financing the building of a new library. President Gadaffi (Libya) has donated funds (Gadaffi Prize for Peace) to maintain and protect manuscripts.

The collection is ever growing as more families donate their treasures. The texts include law, history, science, medicine, poetry, and theology. In July 2008, the Institut held a workshop for database catalogers of Arabic manuscripts where many of the most famous texts such as the Tarikh es-Sudan and several Qurans were on display. Some of these texts are written in various African languages including Arabic using Arabic script. The medieval form of the languages requires a slow process for translating into contemporary major languages.

SAVAMA-DCI

The Association de Sauvegarde des Manuscrits et la Defense de la Culture Islamique (SAVAMA-DCI), an NGO (non-governmental organization), has provided members with resources to digitize 600 manuscripts from the Mamma Haidara Library, the Imam Essayouti Library, al-Wangari Library, Library of Cheick Zayni Baye, and the Fondo Kati Library. The digitized texts will be housed on the Aluka database so that researchers worldwide may have access to the resources. This digitization process also provides visual representation of the calligraphy, color of the ink, and gold leaf. Unfortunately, this process has yet to capture the odor and texture of the leather covers and parchment or velum.

Several organizations have become involved in assisting the conservation process. In 2007, the Northwestern University staff installed a digital photography studio and trained member technicians with Andrew Mellon Foundation funding.

In addition to financial support from government and non-government organizations, the family libraries have devised other means to earn money to cover some costs. Some charge admission for tourists to view manuscripts or copies, and the Heinrick Barth house is converted into a museum on calligraphy. The Imam Essayouti Library staff sell post cards of manuscripts and reproductions of texts in their collection, as well as books and articles about the preservation process. The libraries also provide an Internet café for tourists as an incentive to visit the collections. In addition, funds earned this way supported the renovation of the library at Djenne and Boujbeiha (a suburb of Timbuktu).

Djenne

Saadou Traore,
Librarian

Djenne is Timbuktu's younger sister city located south on an island in the Niger delta. It was founded in the 13th century as a commercial and intellectual center. After the fall of the Mali and Songhai empires, Djenne experienced successive invasions and pillages. The arrival of Sekou Amadou in 1819 did not improve the situation. The city had 300 years of exploitation by regimes without authority or legitimacy. When the French invaded in 1893, Col. Archinard lost interest in the historic city and moved his headquarters to Mopti. Fortunately, for the preservation of family libraries, the town was not destroyed or modernized.

The Djenne library is directly behind the mosque. Funds from the European Union, the U.S. Embassy, and UNESCO have contributed to the building and administration of the facility. It is located in a two-story building. Several rooms display manuscripts while others are used for the collection and storage of trunks of books. The staff comprises the director and a technician. At the time of my visit, the technician was in Timbuktu at the cataloging workshop.

These libraries and their collections of manuscripts dispel the notion by Europeans that West Africa had no literary tradition. Westerns can benefit from the contents of the manuscripts in terms of law, economics, social morals, medicinal practices, history, astronomy, mathematics, and literature. In addition to the need for preservation and conservation of the manuscripts, there is a need for scholars knowledgeable of the culture and languages (Arabic, Hebrew, Fulani among others) to translate the materials. Consequently, these materials are a window to a world gravely misunderstood and often referred to derogatorily.

Webography

Aluka
http://www.aluka.org
Arabic Manuscript (Library of Congress)
http://memory.loc.gov/intldl/malihtml/islam.html
http://memory.loc.gov/intldl/malihtml/malihome.html
http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/mali
http://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/0307-8/timbuktu.html
Libraries of Timbuktu for the preservation and promotion of African Literary Heritage
http://www.sum.uio.no/research/mali/timbuktu/news.html
Northwestern University, Herskovits Library of African Studies
http://digital.library.northwestern.edu/arbmss/
SAVAMA-DCI
http://www.savamadci.org
Timbuktu Educational Foundation
http://www.timbuktufoundation.org/manuscripts.html
http://www.timbuktufoundation.org/Events/July2003WashnigtonSmithsonian.htm

For other uses, see Timbuktu (disambiguation).

Timbuktu (), also spelt Tinbuktu, Timbuctoo and Timbuktoo (Berber languages: ⵜⵉⵏⴱⵓⴽⵜⵓ; French: Tombouctou; Koyra Chiini: Tumbutu), is an ancient city in Mali, situated 20 km (12 mi) north of the Niger River. The town is the capital of the Timbuktu Region, one of the eight administrative regions of Mali. It had a population of 54,453 in the 2009 census.

Starting out as a seasonal settlement, Timbuktu became a permanent settlement early in the 12th century. After a shift in trading routes, Timbuktu flourished from the trade in salt, gold, ivory and slaves. It became part of the Mali Empire early in the 14th century. In the first half of the 15th century, the Tuareg tribes took control of the city for a short period until the expanding Songhai Empire absorbed the city in 1468. A Moroccan army defeated the Songhai in 1591 and made Timbuktu, rather than Gao, their capital. The invaders established a new ruling class, the Arma, who after 1612 became virtually independent of Morocco. However, the golden age of the city, during which it was a major learning and cultural centre of the Mali Empire, was over, and it entered a long period of decline. Different tribes governed until the French took over in 1893, a situation that lasted until it became part of the current Republic of Mali in 1960. Presently, Timbuktu is impoverished and suffers from desertification.

In its Golden Age, the town's numerous Islamic scholars and extensive trading network made possible an important book trade: together with the campuses of the Sankore Madrasah, an Islamic university, this established Timbuktu as a scholarly centre in Africa. Several notable historic writers, such as Shabeni and Leo Africanus, have described Timbuktu. These stories fuelled speculation in Europe, where the city's reputation shifted from being extremely rich to being mysterious.

Toponymy[edit]

Over the centuries, the spelling of Timbuktu has varied a great deal: from Tenbuch on the Catalan Atlas (1375), to traveller Antonio Malfante's Thambet, used in a letter he wrote in 1447 and also adopted by Alvise Cadamosto in his Voyages of Cadamosto, to Heinrich Barth's Timbúktu and Timbu'ktu. French spelling often appears in international reference as "Tombouctou." As well as its spelling, Timbuktu's toponymy is still open to discussion.[2] At least four possible origins of the name of Timbuktu have been described:

  • Songhay origin: both Leo Africanus and Heinrich Barth believed the name was derived from two Songhay words:[2] Leo Africanus writes the Kingdom of Tombuto was named after a town of the same name, founded in 1213 or 1214 by MansaSuleyman.[3] The word itself consisted of two parts: tin (wall) and butu (Wall of Butu). Africanus did not explain the meaning of this Butu.[2] Heinrich Barth wrote: "The town was probably so called, because it was built originally in a hollow or cavity in the sand-hills. Tùmbutu means hole or womb in the Songhay language: if it were a Temáshight (Tamashek) word, it would be written Tinbuktu. The name is generally interpreted by Europeans as well of Buktu (also same word in Persian is bâkhtàr باختر = where the sun sets, West), but tin has nothing to do with well."
  • Berber origin: Malian historian Sekene Cissoko proposes a different etymology: the Tuareg founders of the city gave it a Berber name, a word composed of two parts: tim, the feminine form of In (place of) and "bouctou", a small dune. Hence, Timbuktu would mean "place covered by small dunes".[5]
  • Abd al-Sadi offers a third explanation in his 17th-century Tarikh al-Sudan: "The Tuareg made it a depot for their belongings and provisions, and it grew into a crossroads for travellers coming and going. Looking after their belongings was a slave woman of theirs called Tinbuktu, which in their language means [the one having a] 'lump'. The blessed spot where she encamped was named after her."
  • The French OrientalistRené Basset forwarded another theory: the name derives from the Zenaga root b-k-t, meaning "to be distant" or "hidden", and the feminine possessive particle tin. The meaning "hidden" could point to the city's location in a slight hollow.

The validity of these theories depends on the identity of the original founders of the city: as recently as 2000, archaeological research has not found remains dating from the 11th/12th century within the limits of the modern city given the difficulty of excavating through metres of sand that have buried the remains over the past centuries. Without consensus, the etymology of Timbuktu remains unclear.

Prehistory[edit]

Like other important Medieval West African towns such as Djenné (Jenné-Jeno), Gao, and Dia, Iron Age settlements have been discovered near Timbuktu that predate the traditional foundation date of the town. Although the accumulation of thick layers of sand has thwarted archaeological excavations in the town itself, some of the surrounding landscape is deflating and exposing pottery shards on the surface. A survey of the area by Susan and Roderick McIntosh in 1984 identified several Iron Age sites along the el-Ahmar, an ancient wadi system that passes a few kilometres to the east of the modern town.

An Iron Age tell complex located 9 kilometres (6 miles) southeast of the Timbuktu near the Wadi el-Ahmar was excavated between 2008 and 2010 by archaeologists from Yale University and the Mission Culturelle de Tombouctou. The results suggest that the site was first occupied during the 5th century BC, thrived throughout the second half of the 1st millennium AD and eventually collapsed sometime during the late 10th or early 11th century AD.

History[edit]

Main article: History of Timbuktu

Timbuktu was a regional trade centre in medieval times, where caravans met to exchange salt from the Sahara Desert for gold, ivory, and slaves from the Sahel, which could be reached via the nearby Niger River. The population swelled from 10,000 in the 13th century to about 50,000 in the 16th century after the establishment of a major Islamic university, which attracted scholars from throughout the Muslim world. In the 1600s, a combination of a purge by a monarch who accused the scholars of "disloyalty" and a decline in trade caused by increased competition from newly available trans-Atlantic sailing routes caused the city to decline. The first European to reach Timbuktu, Alexander Gordon Laing, did not arrive until 1826, and it was not until the 1890s that Timbuktu was formally incorporated into the French colony of Mali. Today, the city is still inhabited, but it plays little role on the world stage.

Geography[edit]

Timbuktu is located on the southern edge of the Sahara 15 km (9 mi) north of the main channel of the River Niger. The town is surrounded by sand dunes and the streets are covered in sand. The port of Kabara is 8 km (5 mi) to the south of the town and is connected to an arm of the river by a 3 km (2 mi) canal. The canal had become heavily silted but in 2007 it was dredged as part of a Libyan financed project.[14]

The annual flood of the Niger River is a result of the heavy rainfall in the headwaters of the Niger and Bani rivers in Guinea and northern Ivory Coast. The rainfall in these areas peaks in August but the flood water takes time to pass down the river system and through the Inner Niger Delta. At Koulikoro, 60 km (37 mi) downstream from Bamako, the flood peaks in September,[15] while in Timbuktu the flood lasts longer and usually reaches a maximum at the end of December.[16]

In the past, the area flooded by the river was more extensive and in years with high rainfall, floodwater would reach the western outskirts of Timbuktu itself. A small navigable creek to the west of the town is shown on the maps published by Heinrich Barth in 1857 and Félix Dubois in 1896. Between 1917 and 1921, during the colonial period, the French used slave labour to dig a narrow canal linking Timbuktu with Kabara.[20] Over the following decades this became silted and filled with sand, but in 2007 as part of the dredging project, the canal was re-excavated so that now when the River Niger floods, Timbuktu is again connected to Kabara.[14][21] The Malian government has promised to address problems with the design of the canal as it currently lacks footbridges and the steep, unstable banks make access to the water difficult.[22]

Kabara can only function as a port in December to January when the river is in full flood. When the water levels are lower, boats dock at Korioumé which is linked to Timbuktu by 18 km (11 mi) of paved road.

Climate[edit]

Timbuktu features a hot desert climate according to the Köppen Climate Classification. The weather is hot and dry throughout much of the year. Average daily maximum temperatures in the hottest months of the year – April, May and June – exceed 40 °C (104 °F). Lowest temperatures occur during the Northern hemisphere winter – December, January and February. However, average maximum temperatures do not drop below 30 °C (86 °F). These winter months are characterized by a dry, dusty trade wind blowing from the Saharan Tibesti Region southward to the Gulf of Guinea: picking up dust particles on their way, these winds limit visibility in what has been dubbed the 'Harmattan Haze'.[23] Additionally, when the dust settles in the city, sand builds up and desertification looms.[24]

Climate data for Timbuktu (1950–2000, extremes 1897–present)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)41.6
(106.9)
43.5
(110.3)
46.1
(115)
48.9
(120)
49.0
(120.2)
49.0
(120.2)
46.0
(114.8)
46.5
(115.7)
45.0
(113)
48.0
(118.4)
42.5
(108.5)
40.0
(104)
49.0
(120.2)
Average high °C (°F)30.0
(86)
33.2
(91.8)
36.6
(97.9)
40.0
(104)
42.2
(108)
41.6
(106.9)
38.5
(101.3)
36.5
(97.7)
38.3
(100.9)
39.1
(102.4)
35.2
(95.4)
30.4
(86.7)
36.8
(98.2)
Average low °C (°F)13.0
(55.4)
15.2
(59.4)
18.5
(65.3)
22.5
(72.5)
26.0
(78.8)
27.3
(81.1)
25.8
(78.4)
24.8
(76.6)
24.8
(76.6)
22.7
(72.9)
17.7
(63.9)
13.5
(56.3)
21.0
(69.8)
Record low °C (°F)1.7
(35.1)
7.5
(45.5)
7.0
(44.6)
8.0
(46.4)
18.5
(65.3)
17.4
(63.3)
18.0
(64.4)
20.0
(68)
18.9
(66)
13.0
(55.4)
11.0
(51.8)
3.5
(38.3)
1.7
(35.1)
Average rainfall mm (inches)0.6
(0.024)
0.1
(0.004)
0.1
(0.004)
1.0
(0.039)
4.0
(0.157)
16.4
(0.646)
53.5
(2.106)
73.6
(2.898)
29.4
(1.157)
3.8
(0.15)
0.1
(0.004)
0.2
(0.008)
182.8
(7.197)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)0.10.10.10.60.93.26.68.14.70.80.00.125.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours263.9249.6269.9254.6275.3234.7248.6255.3248.9273.0274.0258.73,106.5
Source #1: World Meteorological Organization,[25] NOAA (sun 1961–1990)[26]
Source #2: Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)[27]

Economy[edit]

Salt trade[edit]

The wealth and very existence of Timbuktu depended on its position as the southern terminus of an important trans-Saharan trade route; nowadays, the only goods that are routinely transported across the desert are slabs of rock salt brought from the Taoudenni mining centre in the central Sahara 664 km (413 mi) north of Timbuktu. Until the second half of the 20th century most of the slabs were transported by large salt caravans or azalai, one leaving Timbuktu in early November and the other in late March.

The caravans of several thousand camels took three weeks each way, transporting food to the miners and returning with each camel loaded with four or five 30 kg (66 lb) slabs of salt. The salt transport was largely controlled by the desert nomads of the Arabic-speaking Berabich (or Barabish) tribe.[29] Although there are no roads, the slabs of salt are now usually transported from Taoudenni by truck.[30] From Timbuktu the salt is transported by boat to other towns in Mali.

Between the 12th and 14th centuries, Timbuktu's population grew immensely due to an influx of Tuaregs, Fulanis, and Songhais seeking trade, security, or to study. By 1300, the population increased to 10,000 and kept increasing until it reached about 50,000 in the 1500s.[31]

Agriculture[edit]

There is insufficient rainfall in the Timbuktu region for purely rain-fed agriculture and crops are therefore irrigated using water from the River Niger. The main agricultural crop is rice. African floating rice (Oryza glaberrima) has traditionally been grown in regions near the river that are inundated during the annual flood. Seed is sown at the beginning of the rainy season (June–July) so that when the flood water arrives plants are already 30 to 40 cm (12 to 16 in) in height.[32]

The plants grow up to three metres (9.8 feet) in height as the water level rises. The rice is harvested by canoe in December. The procedure is very precarious and the yields are low but the method has the advantage that little capital investment is required. A successful crop depends critically on the amount and timing of the rain in the wet season and the height of the flood. To a limited extent the arrival of the flood water can be controlled by the construction of small mud dikes that become submerged as the water rises.

Although floating rice is still cultivated in the Timbuktu Cercle, most of the rice is now grown in three relatively large irrigated areas that lie to the south of the town: Daye (392 ha), Koriomé (550 ha) and Hamadja (623 ha).[33] Water is pumped from the river using ten large Archimedes' screws which were first installed in the 1990s. The irrigated areas are run as cooperatives with approximately 2,100 families cultivating small plots.[34] Nearly all the rice produced is consumed by the families themselves. The yields are still relatively low and the farmers are being encouraged to change their agricultural practices.[35]

Tourism[edit]

Most tourists visit Timbuktu between November and February when the air temperature is lower. In the 1980s, accommodation for the small number of tourists was provided by two small hotels: Hotel Bouctou and Hotel Azalaï.[36] Over the following decades the tourist numbers increased so that by 2006 there were seven small hotels and guest houses.[33] The town benefited by the revenue from the CFA 5000 tourist tax,[33] by the sale of handicrafts and by the employment for the guides.

Attacks[edit]

Starting in 2008 the Al-Qaeda Organization in the Islamic Maghreb began kidnapping groups of tourists in the Sahel region.[37] In January 2009, four tourists were kidnapped near the Mali-Niger border after attending a cultural festival at Anderamboukané.[38] One of these tourists was subsequently murdered.[39] As a result of this and various other incidents a number of states including France,[40] Britain[41] and the US,[42] began advising their citizens to avoid travelling far from Bamako. The number of tourists visiting Timbuktu dropped precipitously from around 6000 in 2009 to only 492 in the first four months of 2011.[36]

Because of the security concerns, the Malian government moved the 2010 Festival in the Desert from Essakane to the outskirts of Timbuktu.[43][44] In November 2011 gunmen attacked tourists staying at a hotel in Timbuktu, killing one of them and kidnapping three others.[45][46] This was the first terrorist incident in Timbuktu itself.

On 1 April 2012, one day after the capture of Gao, Timbuktu was captured from the Malian military by the Tuareg rebels of the MNLA and Ansar Dine.[47] Five days later, the MNLA declared the region independent of Mali as the nation of Azawad.[48] The declared political entity was not recognized by any local nations or the international community and it collapsed three months later on 12 July.[49]

On 28 January 2013, French and Malian government troops began retaking Timbuktu from the Islamist rebels.[50] The force of 1,000 French troops with 200 Malian soldiers retook Timbuktu without a fight. The Islamist groups had already fled north a few days earlier, having set fire to the Ahmed Baba Institute, which housed many important manuscripts. The building housing the Ahmed Baba Institute was funded by South Africa, and held 30,000 manuscripts. BBC World Service radio news reported on 29 January 2013 that approximately 28,000 of the manuscripts in the Institute had been removed to safety from the premises before the attack by the Islamist groups, and that the whereabouts of about 2,000 manuscripts remained unknown.[51] It was intended to be a resource for Islamic research.[52]

On 30 March 2013, jihadist rebels infiltrated into Timbuktu nine days before a suicide bombing on a Malian army checkpoint at the international airport killing a soldier. Fighting lasted until 1 April, when French warplanes helped Malian ground forces chase the remaining rebels out of the city center.

Legendary tales[edit]

Tales of Timbuktu's fabulous wealth helped prompt European exploration of the west coast of Africa. Among the most famous descriptions of Timbuktu are those of Leo Africanus and Shabeni.

Leo Africanus[edit]

The rich king of Tombuto hath many plates and sceptres of gold, some whereof weigh 1300 pounds. ... He hath always 3000 horsemen ... (and) a great store of doctors, judges, priests, and other learned men, that are bountifully maintained at the king's cost and charges.

Leo Africanus, Descrittione dell' Africa[3]

The inhabitants are very rich, especially the strangers who have settled in the country [..] But salt is in very short supply because it is carried here from Tegaza, some 500 miles (805 km) from Timbuktu. I happened to be in this city at a time when a load of salt sold for eighty ducats. The king has a rich treasure of coins and gold ingots.

Leo Africanus, Descrittione dell' Africa in Paul Brians' Reading About the World, Volume 2[53]

Perhaps most famous among the accounts written about Timbuktu is that by Leo Africanus. Born El Hasan ben Muhammed el- Wazzan-ez-Zayyati in Granada in 1485, his family was among the thousands of Muslims expelled by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella after their reconquest of Spain in 1492. They settled in Morocco, where he studied in Fes and accompanied his uncle on diplomatic missions throughout North Africa. During these travels, he visited Timbuktu. As a young man he was captured by pirates and presented as an exceptionally learned slave to Pope Leo X, who freed him, baptized him under the name "Johannis Leo de Medici", and commissioned him to write, in Italian, a detailed survey of Africa. His accounts provided most of what Europeans knew about the continent for the next several centuries. Describing Timbuktu when the Songhai empire was at its height, the English edition of his book includes the description:

According to Leo Africanus, there were abundant supplies of locally produced corn, cattle, milk and butter, though there were neither gardens nor orchards surrounding the city.[53] In another passage dedicated to describing the wealth of both the environment and the king, Africanus touches upon the rarity of some of Timbuktu's trade commodities: salt. These descriptions and passages alike caught the attention of European explorers. Africanus, though, also described the more mundane aspects of the city, such as the "cottages built of chalk, and covered with thatch" – although these went largely unheeded.

Shabeni[edit]

The natives of the town of Timbuctoo may be computed at 40,000, exclusive of slaves and foreigners [..] The natives are all blacks: almost every stranger marries a female of the town, who are so beautiful that travellers often fall in love with them at first sight.

– Shabeni in James Grey Jackson's An Account of Timbuctoo and Hausa, 1820

Roughly 250 years after Leo Africanus' visit to Timbuktu, the city had seen many rulers. The end of the 18th century saw the grip of the Moroccan rulers on the city wane, resulting in a period of unstable government by quickly changing tribes. During the rule of one of those tribes, the Hausa, a 14-year-old child from Tétouan accompanied his father on a visit to Timbuktu. Growing up a merchant, he was captured and eventually brought to England.

Shabeni, or Asseed El Hage Abd Salam Shabeeny stayed in Timbuktu for three years before moving to Housa. Two years later, he returned to Timbuktu to live there for another seven years – one of a population that was even centuries after its peak and excluding slaves, double the size of the 21st-century town.

By the time Shabeni was 27, he was an established merchant in his hometown. Returning from a trade mission to Hamburg, his English ship was captured and brought to Ostend by a ship under Russian colours in December 1789. He was subsequently set free by the British consulate, but his ship set him ashore in Dover for fear of being captured again. Here, his story was recorded. Shabeeni gave an indication of the size of the city in the second half of the 18th century. In an earlier passage, he described an environment that was characterized by forest, as opposed to nowadays' arid surroundings.

Arts and culture[edit]

Cultural events[edit]

The most well-known cultural event is the Festival au Désert.[57] When the Tuareg rebellion ended in 1996 under the Konaré administration, 3,000 weapons were burned in a ceremony dubbed the Flame of Peace on 29 March 2007 – to commemorate the ceremony, a monument was built. The Festival au Désert, to celebrate the peace treaty, is held near the city in January.[57]

World Heritage Site[edit]

During its twelfth session, in December 1988, the World Heritage Committee (WHC) selected parts of Timbuktu's historic centre for inscription on its World Heritage list.[59] The selection was based on three criteria:[60]

  • Criterion II: Timbuktu's holy places were vital to early Islamization in Africa.
  • Criterion IV: Timbuktu's mosques show a cultural and scholarly Golden Age during the Songhay Empire.
  • Criterion V: The construction of the mosques, still mostly original, shows the use of traditional building techniques.

An earlier nomination in 1979 failed the following year as it lacked proper demarcation:[60] the Malian government included the town of Timbuktu as a whole in the wish for inclusion.[61] Close to a decade later, three mosques and 16 mausoleums or cemeteries were selected from the Old Town for World Heritage status: with this conclusion came the call for protection of the buildings' conditions, an exclusion of new construction works near the sites and measures against the encroaching sand.

Shortly afterwards, the monuments were placed on the List of World Heritage in Danger by the Malian government, as suggested by the selection committee at the time of nomination.[59] The first period on the Danger List lasted from 1990 until 2005, when a range of measures including restoration work and the compilation of an inventory warranted "its removal from the Danger List".[62] In 2008 the WHC placed the protected area under increased scrutiny dubbed "reinforced monitoring", a measure made possible in 2007, as the impact of planned construction work was unclear. Special attention was given to the build of a cultural centre.[63]

During a session in June 2009, UNESCO decided to cease its increased monitoring program as it felt sufficient progress had been made to address the initial concerns.[64] Following the takeover of Timbuktu by MNLA and the Islamist group Ansar Dine, it was returned to the List of World Heritage in Danger in 2012.[65]

Attacks by Muslim Fundamentalists[edit]

Further information: Islamist destruction of Timbuktu heritage sites

In May 2012, Ansar Dine destroyed a shrine in the city[66] and in June 2012, in the aftermath of the Battle of Gao and Timbuktu, other shrines, including the mausoleum of Sidi Mahmoud, were destroyed when attacked with shovels and pickaxes by members of the same group.[65] An Ansar Dine spokesman said that all shrines in the city, including the 13 remaining World Heritage sites, would be destroyed because they consider them to be examples of idolatry, a sin in Islam.[65][67] These acts have been described as crimes against humanity and war crimes.[68] After the destruction of the tombs, UNESCO created a special fund to safeguard Mali's World Heritage Sites, vowing to carry out reconstruction and rehabilitation projects once the security situation allows.[69]

Education[edit]

"If the University of Sankore [...] had survived the ravages of foreign invasions, the academic and cultural history of Africa might have been different from what it is today."

– Kwame Nkrumah at the University of Ghana inauguration, 1961

Centre of learning[edit]

Timbuktu was a world centre of Islamic learning from the 13th to the 17th century, especially under the Mali Empire and Askia Mohammad I's rule. The Malian government and NGOs have been working to catalog and restore the remnants of this scholarly legacy: Timbuktu's manuscripts.[70]

Timbuktu's rapid economic growth in the 13th and 14th centuries drew many scholars from nearby Walata (today in Mauretania),[71] leading up to the city's golden age in the 15th and 16th centuries that proved fertile ground for scholarship of religions, arts and sciences. To the people of Timbuktu, literacy and books were symbols of wealth, power, and blessings and the acquisition of books became a primary concern for scholars.[72] An active trade in books between Timbuktu and other parts of the Islamic world and emperor Askia Mohammed's strong support led to the writing of thousands of manuscripts.[73]

Knowledge was gathered in a manner similar to the early, informal European Medieval university model.[71] Lecturing was presented through a range of informal institutions called madrasahs.[74] Nowadays known as the University of Timbuktu, three madrasahs facilitated 25,000 students: Djinguereber, Sidi Yahya and Sankore.[75]

These institutions were explicitly religious, as opposed to the more secular curricula of modern European universities and more similar to the medieval Europe model. However, where universities in the European sense started as associations of students and teachers, West-African education was patronized by families or lineages, with the Aqit and Bunu al-Qadi al-Hajj families being two of the most prominent in Timbuktu – these families also facilitated students is set-aside rooms in their housings. Although the basis of Islamic law and its teaching were brought to Timbuktu from North Africa with the spread of Islam, Western African scholarship developed: Ahmad Baba al Massufi is regarded as the city's greatest scholar.[77]

Timbuktu served in this process as a distribution centre of scholars and scholarship. Its reliance on trade meant intensive movement of scholars between the city and its extensive network of trade partners. In 1468–1469 though, many scholars left for Walata when Sunni Ali's Songhay Empire absorbed Timbuktu and again in 1591 with the Moroccan occupation.[71]

This system of education survived until the late 19th century, while the 18th century saw the institution of itinerant Quranic school as a form of universal education, where scholars would travel throughout the region with their students, begging for food part of the day.[70] Islamic education came under pressure after the French occupation, droughts in the 70s and 80s and by Mali's civil war in the early 90s.[70]

Manuscripts and libraries[edit]

Main article: Timbuktu Manuscripts

Hundreds of thousands of manuscripts were collected in Timbuktu over the course of centuries: some were written in the town itself, others – including exclusive copies of the Qur'an for wealthy families – imported through the lively booktrade.

Hidden in cellars or buried, hid between the mosque's mud walls and safeguarded by their patrons, many of these manuscripts survived the city's decline. They now form the collection of several libraries in Timbuktu, holding up to 700,000 manuscripts:[78] In late January 2013 it was reported that rebel forces destroyed many of the manuscripts before leaving the city.[79][80] However, there was no malicious destruction of any library or collection as most of the manuscripts were safely hidden away.[81][82][83][84]

These libraries are the largest among up to 60 private or public libraries that are estimated to exist in Timbuktu today, although some comprise little more than a row of books on a shelf or a bookchest.[85] Under these circumstances, the manuscripts are vulnerable to damage and theft, as well as long term climate damage, despite Timbuktu's arid climate. Two Timbuktu Manuscripts Projects funded by independent universities have aimed to preserve them.

Language[edit]

Although French is Mali's official language, today the large majority of Timbuktu's inhabitants speaks Koyra Chiini, a Songhay language that also functions as the lingua franca. Before the 1990–1994 Tuareg rebellion, both Hassaniya Arabic and Tamashek were represented by 10% each to an 80% dominance of the Koyra Chiini language. With Tamashek spoken by both Ikelan and ethnic Tuaregs, its use declined with the expulsion of many Tuaregs following the rebellion, increasing the dominance of Koyra Chiini.

Arabic, introduced together with Islam during the 11th century, has mainly been the language of scholars and religion, comparable to Latin in Western Christianity.[87] Although Bambara is spoken by the most numerous ethnic group in Mali, the Bambara people, it is mainly confined to the south of the country. With an improving infrastructure granting Timbuktu access to larger cities in Mali's South, use of Bambara was increasing in the city at least until Azawad independence.

Infrastructure[edit]

With no railroads in Mali except for the Dakar-Niger Railway up to Koulikoro, access to Timbuktu is by road, boat or, since 1961, aircraft.[88] With high water levels in the Niger from August to December, Compagnie Malienne de Navigation (COMANAV) passenger ferries operate a leg between Koulikoro and downstream Gao on a roughly weekly basis. Also requiring high water are pinasses (large motorized pirogues), either chartered or public, that travel up and down the river.[89]

Both ferries and pinasses arrive at Korioumé, Timbuktu's port, which is linked to the city centre by an 18 km (11 mi) paved road running through Kabara. In 2007, access to Timbuktu's traditional port, Kabara, was restored by a Libyan funded project that dredged the 3 km (2 mi) silted canal connecting Kabara to an arm of the Niger River. COMANAV ferries and pinassses are now able to reach the port when the river is in full flood.[14][90]

Timbuktu is poorly connected to the Malian road network with only dirt roads to the neighbouring towns. Although the Niger River can be crossed by ferry at Korioumé, the roads south of the river are no better. However, a new paved road is under construction between Niono and Timbuktu running to the north of the Inland Niger Delta. The 565 km (351 mi) road will pass through Nampala, Léré, Niafunké, Tonka, Diré and Goundam.[91][92] The completed 81 km (50 mi) section between Niono and the small village of Goma Coura was financed by the Millennium Challenge Corporation.[93] This new section will service the Alatona irrigation system development of the Office du Niger.[94] The 484 km (301 mi) section between Goma Coura and Timbuktu is being financed by the European Development Fund.[91]

Timbuktu Airport is served by both Air Mali and Mali Air Express, hosting flights to and from Bamako, Gao and Mopti.[89] Its 6,923 ft (2,110 m) runway in a 07/25 runway orientation is both lighted and paved.[95]

In popular culture[edit]

In the imagination of Europeans and North Americans, Timbuktu is a place that bears with it a sense of mystery: a 2006 survey of 150 young Britons found 34% did not believe the town existed, while the other 66% considered it "a mythical place".[96] This sense has been acknowledged in literature describing African history and African-European relations.[2][98]

The origin of this mystification lies in the excitement brought to Europe by the legendary tales, especially those by Leo Africanus: Arabic sources focused mainly on more affluent cities in the Timbuktu region, such as Gao and Walata. In West Africa the city holds an image that has been compared to Europe's view on Athens. As such, the picture of the city as the epitome of distance and mystery is a European one.[2]

Down-to-earth-aspects in Africanus' descriptions were largely ignored and stories of great riches served as a catalyst for travellers to visit the inaccessible city – with prominent French explorer René Caillié characterising Timbuktu as "a mass of ill-looking houses built of earth". Now opened up, many travellers acknowledged the unfitting description of an "African El Dorado".[24] This development shifted the city's reputation – from being fabled because of its gold to fabled because of its location and mystery: Being used in this sense since at least 1863, English dictionaries now cite Timbuktu as a metaphor for any faraway place.[100] Long part of colloquial language, Timbuktu also found its way into literature: in Tom Robbins' novel Half Asleep in Frog Pajamas, Timbuktu provides a central theme. One lead character, Larry Diamond, is vocally fascinated with the city.[citation needed]

In the original 1932 recording of the popular seaside song The Sun Has Got His Hat On, the second verse contains the lines: "[The Sun's] been tanning niggers out in Timbuktu / Now he's coming back to do the same to you!"[101] Due to the controversial nature of the racial epithet "nigger", controversy has arisen when this song has been played[102] and various replacements, including "negroes"[103] and "roasting peanuts"[104] have been offered.

In the stage playOliver!, a 1960 musical, when the title character sings to Bet, "I'd do anything for you, dear", one of her responses is "Go to Timbuktu?" "And back again", Oliver responds.

In the Dr. Seuss book Hop on Pop, he says "My brothers read a little bit. Little words like If and it. My father can read big words, too. Like CONSTANTINOPLE and Timbuktu".

Similar uses of the city are found in movies, where it is used to indicate a place a person or good cannot be traced – in a Dutch Donald Duck comic subseries situated in Timbuktu, Donald Duck uses the city as a safe haven,[105] and in the 1970 Disneyanimated featureThe Aristocats, Edgar, the villain of the story, threatens the cats with being sent to Timbuktu only for their friends to rescue them and send Edgar there instead. It is mistakenly noted to be in French Equatorial Africa, instead of French West Africa.[106] Timbuktu provided the main setting for the 1959 film Timbuktu, which was set in the city in 1940 although it was filmed in Kanab, Utah, and for Timbuktu in 2014.

Ali Farka Touré inverted the stereotype: "For some people, when you say 'Timbuktu' it is like the end of the world, but that is not true. I am from Timbuktu, and I can tell you that we are right at the heart of the world."[107]

Timbuktu! was a 1978 Broadway musical based on the 1953 Kismet, which re-imagined the original, transposing it from an "Arabian Nights" setting to eleventh-century Mali.

In Stanley Kubrick's The Shining

Azalai salt caravan, mid-December 1985.
Reconstruction of the Ben Essayouti Library, Timbuktu
Manuscripts of the Ahmed Baba Centre

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